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Archive for May 2011

Physicochemical characterization of Swarna makshika bhasma

Physicochemical characterization of Swarna makshika bhasma

Swarna makshika [SM], a mineral having various therapeutic uses, has been used since long in Ayurveda . The present study was conducted to generate a fingerprint for raw and processed SM using techniques which can be used by pharmacies. Powdered SM was heated in an iron pan by adding lemon juice for 3 days, till liberation of sulfur fumes stopped. Bhasma of this shuddha SM was obtained by triturating it with shuddha gandhaka and lemon juice. It was then subjected to heat in 09* putas, and for firing in each puta, 4 kg cow dung cakes were used. To assure the quality of bhasma, rasa shastra quality control tests like nischandratva, varitara, amla pariksha, etc., were used. After the bhasma complied with these tests, the bhasma was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis of raw SM and SM bhasma revealed that raw SM contains CuFeS 2 , and SM bhasma contains Fe 2 O 3 , FeS 2 , CuS and SiO 2 . Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) studies showed that the grains in SM bhasma were uniformly arranged in agglomerates of size 1-2 microns as compared to the raw SM which showed a scattered arrangement of grains of size 6-8 microns. It may be concluded that raw SM is a complex compound which gets converted into a mixture of simple compounds having very small particle size after the particular process of marana. This is the first report of fingerprinting of SM bhasma prepared using this particular method.


Swarna makshika [SM] bhasma has been used for pandu (anemia), anidra (insomnia), apasmara (convulsions), mandagni (poor digestion), kustha (skin diseases),[1] etc., as well as a potent rasayana[2] drug. Generally, SM bhasma is prepared in two steps: shodhana, by different techniques like fomentation, heating and quenching and roasting, etc.; and marana, by puta system of heating in different types of putas,[3] like varahaputa, kukkutaputa, gajaputa, etc.; and kupipakwa procedures, [4] etc. During marana, bhavana with lemon juice, kulottha decoction, eranda taila, snuhi ksheera,[5] etc., are given with addition of shuddha gandhaka and shuddha hingula,[6] etc., as associated materials.

SM bhasma is used as a single constituent formulation or in multi-ingredient formulation. However, there is variation in collection of raw materials and the pharmaceutical procedure followed, which generates the same bhasma with different characters. As a result, reproducibility is often not achieved. In many cases, wrong manufacturing and marketing practice leads to the production of inferior quality products, which reduces efficacy or produces safety concerns. In order to minimize variability and to check adulteration, standardization of a bhasma is a must.

Ayurvedic texts have described methods for quality control of finished products through different parameters like nischasndratva, varitara, nirutha, apunarbhava, etc., to achieve a specific acceptable standard bhasma. This study was performed to characterize the bhasma using sensitive tools and techniques. These fingerprints generated for the raw material and bhasma could be used as standards to for ensuring quality and reproducibility of standards of the medicines.

All the above articles / blog posts are not the original contribution from author, please consider a opinion of qualified doctor, if you considering this. If you need a advice please contact Dr. Anil Joy email: [email protected]

Thank You,






Metals and Mineral Drugs of Ayurveda

Metals and Mineral Drugs of Ayurveda

Metals like gold, silver, copper, lead, tin, and iron, sand (balu from river banks), lime and
minerals like red arsenic (manassila), gems (manayah), salts (lavana), and red chalk (gairika)
are indicated as drugs pertaining to earth (bhauma). In Indian metallurgy, the term loha is
often used for metals like gold and silver and minerals containing metals (ores) are called
dhatus. There are seven dhatus: suvarna (gold), rajata (silver), tamra (copper), trapa (tin),
tiksna or ayas (iron), sisa or naga (lead), and vaikrintaka.11 Salts or lavanas are mentioned
under the parthive substances. According to Charaka, there are five salts: sauvarcala,
saindhava, vida, audbhida, and samudra. Mani and ratna, being synonyms for each other,
stand for the modern term “jewel” or “gem.”
Mercury is considered eighth metal in rasa shastra. It earned the supreme position among
the minerals and metals. The learned Acharyas also studied the relation and effects
between these metals and planets over the human body and called them grahanga
navaloha. Metals are grouped as shuddha, sishra, and pooti loha.
The calcined forms of metals that are termed bhasmas in Ayurveda are referred to as
parpams and kushta in Siddha and Unani-tibb, respectively. Kushta literally means to kill;
in medical terms it is detoxifying the toxic properties of a toxic metal.12
Although bhasmas are regarded as chief metal-containing pharmaceuticals of Ayurveda,
there are several other preparations prepared from metals. Some of these pharmaceuticals
are described below.


Animal derivatives such as horns, shells, feathers, and metallic and nonmetallic minerals
are normally administered as bhasmas. A bhasma means an ash obtained though incineration.
The starter material undergoes an elaborate process of purification (shodhana). This
process is followed by the reaction phase, which involves incorporation of some other
mineral and herbal extracts. Then the material in pellet form is incinerated in a furnace.
The end product is expected to be a nontoxic material. Examples include swarn bhasma,
shankha bhasma, and tamra bhasma.


These are specialized mercury preparations. The name is derived from the method by
which flakes of the compound are obtained. A black sulfide of mercury is obtained by
mixing purified mercury and sulfur. Other drugs as per the formula are added to this and
mixed well by triturating them in mortar and pestle. A shallow pit is made in fresh cow
dung and a banana leaf is placed. The melted compound is poured onto the leaf and is
covered with another leaf. Fresh dung is spread on it evenly. When it is cooled the flakes
are removed and powdered.


Rasayogas are compound formulations containing mercury and sulfur (in the form of kajjali)
with other metals or minerals. Most of the ingredients contained in a rasayoga are added
in the form of bhasmas. The final form may be either a pill or powder.
Sindoora are prepared by the elaborate process of sublimation. This procedure is termed
kupipakwa vidhi and the sublimed mineral available on the neck of the sublimation glass
flask is called sindoora. Sindoora preparations are considered to be more potent than bhasma

Types of Bhasma

Attempts have been made to classify various bhasmas. They have been classified on the
basis of color and appearance. A more scientific way of classification is on the basis of
dominant metal and mineral group. According to this classification, bhasmas have been
grouped as rajata group (silver), tamra group (copper), loha group (iron), pravala group
(shells), etc. Often two metals and a metal with mineral are the ingredients of bhasmas.
For example, Trivanga Bhasma contains lead, tin, and zinc. The metals yield three different
types of bhasma corresponding to the nature of the ingredient used. They appear as best,
medium, and inferior quality. Mercury is always used as a basic substance in the process
of marana.
Preparation of Bhasma: General Procedures
The name bhasma is generally applied to all metallic and nonmetallic substances that are
subjected to the process of incineration and reduction to ash. Here it is applied to the
metals, minerals, and animal products that are, by special processes, calcinated in closed
crucibles in pits with cow dung cakes (puttam). Bhasmas are generally white, pale, or red.
The color of the preparation primarily depends on the parent material. The following
pharmaceutical steps are used to prepare bhasmas.


In Ayurveda, purification is called shodhana. Shodhana is the process through which the
external and internal impurities of metals and minerals are removed. Chemical purification
is different from medicinal purification. In chemical purification it is only elimination of
foreign matters, whereas in medicinal purification the objects are involved in the
1. Elimination of harmful matter from the drug
2. Modification of undesirable physical properties of the drug
3. Conversion of some of the characteristics of the drug to different stages
4. Enhancement of the therapeutic action
There are two kinds of shodhana. The first type, samanya shodhana (general purification),
is applicable to the large number of metals or minerals as heating the thin sheets of metals
and immersing them in oil (taila), extract (takra), cow urine (gomutra), and other materials.
The second type, Vishesha shodhana (special purification), is applicable only to specific
metals, minerals, and in certain preparations. Vishesha shodhana includes bhavana, svedana,
nirvapana, and mardana.
After shodhana bhasmas become soft and malleable for further processing and their
metallic property is improved. The main apparatus required includes dola yantra, khalva
yantra, and musha yantra. Various procedures employed for shodhana are described below.
When mineral drugs are heated in a furnace in the presence of dravaka, substances
(liqueficants) like alkali and acid release their satva. This is the purest form of any herbal
or mineral drug. All the metals except mercury are found in nature in solid state, and
they all fuse under high temperature to attain a liquid state. When the temperature lowers
they again return to their natural physical form (i.e., in the solid state). But these fused
metals in the presence of some liqueficants do not return into their natural solid state even
when the temperature lowers (i.e., the metals remain in liquid form). This method of
obtaining metals in liquid form is called dravana and the obtained liquid metal is called
druti. Druti holds superior character with respect to efficacy, toxicity, and increased shelf
life than its native metals and retains its fluidity for a longer time with proper preservation.

Shuddhavarta is a particular stage of heating when the fire becomes strong enough to
yield the pure substance (metal, satva). At this time the flame becomes golden yellow.


Marana is essentially the burning process or calcination. The purified metal is placed into
a mortar and, with a pestle, ground with the juice of specified plants or kashayas, mercury
(in metallic state), or a compound of mercury such as mercury perchloride (sauviram),
mercuric subchloride (ras karpur), cinnabar (ingalekam), or an amalgam of sulfur and
mercury (kajjali) for a specified period of time. The metal that is intended for marana is
known as a primary metal (pradhan dhatu); the other metal, which is taken in small
proportions for the marana of the primary metal, is known as secondary metal (sahaya
dhatu).14 Small cakes (chakrikas) are made with the ground paste of the minerals and dried
under the sun. The size and thickness of the cakes depend on the heaviness of the drug
and size. The heavier the drug, the thinner the cakes. These cakes are dried well under
the shade and placed in one single layer in a mud tray (sharava) and closed with another
such tray; the clay-smeared cloth keeps both the lid and the container in apposition. The
clay-smeared cloth is applied seven times and dried to seal the crucibles properly. A pit
is dug in an open space and half the pit is filled with dried cow dung cakes. The crucibles
are placed in the half-filled pit and are covered with cow dung cakes up to the brim of
the pit. Fire is then ignited on all four sides and in the middle of the pit. When the burning
is over, the contents are allowed to cool completely on their own.
Marana differs with the nature of the substance to be calcinated. For example, organic
substances such as herbs are burnt in open air, whereas inorganic substances such as
metals like rajata (silver) are burnt in closed containers. In either case the end product is
a bhasma of substance taken for marana. For example, the end product in the case of silver
(rajata) is called as rajata bhasma. Marana of inorganic substances is called puta and the
process of marana of herbs in closed freshly made containers is known as puta paka.13
Bhasmas obtained by marana from primary metals together with herbs (mulika) are called
mulika marita bhasma; the ones where the second metal is taken for the marana of primary
metal are called parada (mercury) marita, or talaka (arsenic trisulphide) marita bhasma,
depending upon the second metal used for the purpose. During the process the second
metal would finally volatilize itself at the temperature of marana, leaving behind the bhasma
of primary metal.
Very few metals like copper or iron still bear some impurities after the marana. In such
cases the whole process is repeated until a purified and therapeutically safer product for
internal use is obtained. In addition, a process called amritikarana is done to make these
metals safer. The process consists of heating the product from the marana procedure in
the presence of some herbal materials to improve safety and therapeutic effect. In this
process the required amounts of triphala decoction, cow’s ghritika, and dhatu bhasma are
placed in an iron pot. Mild heat is applied until the medicinal fluids are completely
evaporated. Bhasma that remains at the end of this process is safer and possesses higher
therapeutic efficacy.

All the above articles / blog posts are not the original contribution from author, please consider a opinion of qualified doctor, if you considering this. If you need a advice please contact Dr. Anil Joy email: [email protected]

Thank You,





VULVITIS AND ITS AYURVEDIC TREATMENT In Ayurveda Vulvitis has been described


In Ayurveda Vulvitis has been described as“BHAG SOTH”.

Vulvitis is defined as inflammation of external female genitalia.

Actually vulvitis is not a condition or disease it is a symptom that results from a number of different types of causes such as allergy,infection injury and external irritants.

Vulvitis can affect women of all ages. In young girls and postmenopausal women, the condition may be caused by low estrogen levels.

Vulvitis can be caused by contribution of several factors:

1. Chronic dermatitis
3. Eczema
4. Allergies
5.Oral sex
6.Scented or colored toilet tissue
7. Bacterial infection
8. Fungal infection
9. Hot tubs
10. Horse riding
11. Wearing wet swimming suits for long time
12. Rubbing against a bicycle seat
13.Allergic reactions to products such as:

• soaps,
• shampoos,
• bubble baths,
• powders,
• deodorants,
• sanitary napkins,
• non-cotton underwear,
• pantyhose,
• vaginal douches,
• topical medications.

14. Douches that are too strong or used too frequently
15. spermicides

Who is at risk for vulvitis?

Any woman with certain allergies, sensitivities, infections, or diseases can develop vulvitis. Girls who have not yet reached puberty and postmenopausal women sometimes develop vulvitis, possibly because of inadequate levels of estrogen.

Each women experience different types of symptoms on getting vulvitis but some of the common symptoms are.

• Itching and burning of the vulvar skin

•Redness and swelling of the vulvar skin

• Swelling

• Fluid-filled, clear blisters that break open, and form a crust (sometimes mistaken for herpes)

• Soreness

• Scally appearence

• Thickened or whitish patches

• Possible small cracks in the vulvar skin

• Possible vaginal discharge

For a wommen having these symptoms should note that she should not scratch as this may lead to further irritation and/or infection.One more important thing to note is that over cleaning of the effected area can lead to further irritation so it’s best to wash once a day with warm water only when symptoms of vulvitis are present.

1. A pelvic examination often reveals redness and thickening and may reveal cracks or skin lesions on the vulva.
2. If there is any vaginal discharge, a wet prep inspection may reveal vaginal infection such as vulvovaginitis or vaginitis as the source.
(a)Routine examination urine
(b)Urine culture
(d)Pap test – test that involves microscopic examination of cells collected from the cervix, used to detect changes that may be cancer or may lead to cancer, and to show noncancerous conditions, such as infection or inflammation.

• Discontinue the use of any potential irritants.

• If discharge from a vaginal infection is the cause of vulvitis, the source of the vaginal infection should be treated.
• Anuvasana basti (or enema prepared with uncoctous substances and medicament).
• Garlic taken both orally and inserted into vagina is helpfull due to it’s antibacterial and antifungal action.

Commonly used drugs
• Choorna
o Gokshuradi choorna
o Punarnava vastaka choorna

• Rasakalpa
o Chandrakala rasa

• Ghrita
o Gokshuradi ghritam

o Traikantha ghritam

• Vati
o Gokshuradi guggulu vati

o Chandraprabha vati

• Avaleha
o Shatavari gula


Since one of the main causes of vulvitis is exposure of the vulva to chemicals (bubble bath, douches, detergents, fabric softeners, perfumes, etc.), or other irritating materials (wool, fibrous, or “itchy” materials), daily cleansing with mild soap, adequate rinsing, and thorough drying of the genital area is one of the best ways to avoid it. Also, avoid using feminine hygiene sprays, fragrances, or powders in the genital area.

Avoid wearing extremely tight-fitting pants or shorts, which may cause irritation by constantly rubbing against the skin and by holding in heat and restricting air circulation. Underwear made of silk or nylon is not very absorbant and also restricts air circulation. This can increase sweating in the genital area, which can cause irritation and may provide a more welcoming environment for infectious organisms.

Wearing cotton underwear or pantyhose that have a cotton crotch allow better air circulation and can decrease the amount of moisture in the area. For the above-mentioned reasons, you should also avoid wearing sweaty exercise clothing for prolonged periods. Not wearing underwear while sleeping will also allow more air circulation.

Those infections that may be spread by intimate or sexual contact may be prevented or minimized by practicing abstinence or using safer sexual behaviors, especially condom use.

All the above articles / blog posts are not the original contribution from author, please consider a opinion of qualified doctor, if you considering this. If you need a advice please contact Dr. Anil Joy email: [email protected]

Thank You,

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VASARISHTAM AND ITS PROPERTIES As a bronchodilator, expectorant and haemostatic,

As a bronchodilator,
expectorant and haemostatic,
this classical formula is used
for various respiratory
disorders including bronchitis,
pharyngitis, bronchial asthma,
cough, pulmonary
tuberculosis and chest trauma.
Jaggery, Malabar nut, Five flame
bush, Cardamom, Cinnamon,
Pogostemon, Indian ironwood,
Coleus, Camphor, Tailed pepper,
Ginger, Black pepper, Long pepper.
Recommended use:
1-2 Tbsp./15-30 ml. twice daily.

Stroke Rehabilitation – Ayurvedic Herbal Therapy Shot, which commonly refers to palsy

Stroke Rehabilitation – Ayurvedic Herbal TherapyStroke Rehabilitation – Ayurvedic Herbal Therapy

Shot, which commonly refers to palsy, can make impotency or disfunction on one endorse of the body. Lessened perception and muscular co-ordination, reprehension and module problems, dickey skillfulness over bladder and gut, schmaltzy labiality and cognitive defects are the ordinary after effects of apoplexy. Ischemia rehabilitation is real alpha in impose to enable the stilted being to win self-sufficiency to the extremum extent achievable.

Fill who score had a haemorrhage are at an inflated danger of having added manoeuvre, especially within one assemblage. It is chief to proceed medications to manipulate slaying somaesthesia, cholesterol and diabetes. Vapour and inebriant should be obstructed completely. The Ayurvedic handling for the rehabilitation of movement patients is aimed at move up the effort knowledge and reaction perennial point handicap. Discourse during the discriminating paralytic leg is finest done in a hospital. Formerly the patient has been free from infirmary, Ayurvedic communication should be initiated at the early, in dictate Yograj-Guggulu, Panch-Tikta-Ghrut-Guggulu, Trayodashang-Guggulu, Maha-Vat-Vidhvans-Ras and Vat-Gajankush-Ras are used to confine the after personalty of paralysis. Tapyadi-Loh, Ekang-Veer-Ras and Kaishor-Guggulu can be utilised to normalize neuromuscular reflexion. Trayodashang-Guggulu and Panch-Tikta-Ghrut-Guggulu refrain in reducing rigidity and stiffness of muscles. Medicines same Maha-Manjishthadi-Qadha, Saarivadi-Churna, Chandrakala-Ras, Sutshekhar-Ras, Kamdudha-Ras, Praval-Bhasma, Rakta-Chandan (Pterocarpus santalinus), Usheer (Vetiveria zizanioidis), Chandan (Santalum medium), Manjishtha (Rubia cordifolia), Saariva (Hemidesmus indicus), Haridra (Curcuma longa), Daruharidra (Berberis aristata) and Amalaki (Emblica officinalis) are old to diminish inflammation and casualty to the micro vessels in the intelligence, aid in dissolving gore clots and meliorate the circulation in areas with a inadequate gore render. Medicines equivalent Suvarna-Sutshekhar-Ras, Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi), Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), Mandukparni (Centella asiatica), Shankhpushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis) and Dhamasa (Fagonia cretica) are old to shrink emphasize and forbid the gore pushing from accelerative.

Panchkarma procedures are adoptive in prescribe to fastness up the retrieval of unfit muscles. The whole body is massaged with medicated oils same Mahanarayan oil, Mahamash oil and Maha-Saindhavadi oil. This is followed by steam induction of the full embody using medicines equivalent Dashmool-Qadha and Nirgundi-Qadha. Trigger is good avoided, or finished with bounds want, in patients having a steep execution somatesthesia or a account of trauma stroking. Gravely paralyzed limbs can be massaged singly using assorted techniques like ‘Pizichil’ or ‘Pinda-sweda’.

Symmetrical exercise in control and organized physiatrics is really crucial in regaining muscular utility and co-ordination. Yogic asanas, pranayam and different weakening techniques can serve a lot in movement up the retrieval transform. The prudent use of Ayurvedic medicines and Ayurvedic Panchkarma procedures can definitely supply a lot in the rehabilitation of movement patients.

All the above articles / blog posts are not the original contribution from author, please consider a opinion of qualified doctor, if you considering this. If you need a advice please contact Dr. Anil Joy email: [email protected]

Thank You,

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